Values and Transcendence: A Study about How Religious and Secular Values are Related with Religion and Spirituality in a Time of Secularism in a Country of Traditional Religious Culture
Spirituality concept is easily related to religion in countries where both shares the same cultural context. This is the case of Spain, where only recently, and as a consequence of secularization process, spirituality concept has acquired “non religious” connotations, and not always neutral, particularly when people define themselves as spiritual but not “religious” in an attitude with criticism and rejection toward religious institution. On the other hand, spirituality has a different consideration at academic level, particularly from Psychology of Religion. In this, one of the ways of defining spirituality, affirm its developmental dimension with differential characteristics, common to all human beings, and being able of having religious and non religious meanings. One of the more consolidated lines of research about psychological determinants of religious and spirituality identified stables and specific patterns of relationships with specific values. Although this topics have been previously studied with Spanish population, the study of the relationships and differences between measures of religiosity, spirituality, and the values that nowadays define the secular (lay) point of view, has not been done in spite of its appropriateness: recent sociological studies show how religiosity in Spain is lower that a few decades before, that religious but non institutional practices are relevant, and that young people are interested in “modern spirituality”. All this happen in a social context where mass media and political thinking looks show that the “lay point of view” is increasing. Does it exist differences between lays and religious values, and dimensions of religious and modern spirituality?
Keywords: Values, Religion, Spirituality, Modern Spirituality, Secular Values, Religious Values, Psychology of Religion
Dr. Antonio Muñoz García
Professor Contracted Doctor, Faculty of Educational Sciences