Towards 21 Century Fractal Innovation Ecosystem
“Mode 3” allows and emphasizes the co-existence and co-evolution of different knowledge and innovation paradigms. In fact, a key hypothesis is: The competitiveness and superiority of a knowledge system is highly determined by its adaptive capacity to combine and integrate different knowledge and innovation modes via co-evolution, co-specialization and co-opetition knowledge stock and flow dynamics (for example, Mode 1, Mode 2, Triple Helix, linear and non-linear innovation; Gibbons et al., 1994; Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff, 2000). The specific context (circumstances, demands, configurations, cases) determines, which knowledge and innovation mode (multi-modal), at which level (multi-level), involving what parties or agents (multi-lateral) and with what knowledge nodes or knowledge clusters (multi-nodal) will be appropriate. What results is an emerging fractal knowledge and innovation ecosystem (“mode 3"), well-configured for the knowledge economy and society challenges and opportunities of the twenty-first century by being endowed with mutually complementary and reinforcing as well as dynamically co-evolving, co-specializing and co-opeting, diverse and heterogeneous configurations of knowledge creation, diffusion and use. The intrinsic litmus test of the capacity of such an ecosystem to survive and prosper in the context of continually glocalizing and intensifying competition represents the ultimate competitiveness benchmark with regards to the robustness and quality of the ecosystem’s knowledge and innovation architecture and topology.
Keywords: Innovation Networks, Knowledge Clusters, Fractal Innovation Ecosystem, Technological Learning, Knowledge Production Systems
Prof. Elias Carayannis
Professor, ISTM Department, School of Business
He is on the Advisory Board of several high tech start-up firms and consults for a number of technology driven government and private, large as well as small organizations such as the World Bank, the European Commission, the Inter-American Development Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the National Science Foundation Small Business Innovation Research Program, the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Technology Program, the National Coalition for Advanced Manufacturing (NACFAM), the USN CNO Office, Sandia National Laboratories' New Technological Ventures Initiative, the General Electric Corporate Training & Development Center, Cowen & Co, First Albany International, Entreprises Importfab, and others. He is fluent in English, French, German, Greek, and has a working knowledge of Spanish. He is citizen of the U.S. and the European Union.