On Entrepreneurs and Managers: An International Interdisciplinary Perspective

By:
Prof. Ayala M. Pines,
Jawad Syed,
Prof. Mustafa Ozbilgin,
Asst. Prof Zahide Karakitapoglu Aygun,
Prof. Dov Dvir,
Dr. Arik Sadeh,
Ahu Tatli
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Managers and entrepreneurs were both described as enactments of archetypes on the organizational stage, management as the activity of introducing order by coordinating flows of things and people toward collective action, entrepreneurship as the making of new worlds. A large and steadily growing research literature attests to the interest in managers and entrepreneurs, however very little research compares these two organizational leaders. The colloquium addresses various antecedents (such as the influence of culture and of various persons), correlates (such as work placements) and consequences (such as career success) of the careers of various types of managers and entrepreneurs (including high technology entrepreneurs and managers, skilled migrants, MBA students aspiring to be managers, and students in the creative and cultural industries).

The presenters of the symposium represent a truly international (including Australia, The UK, Israel, and Turkey) and interdisciplinary perspective (including management sciences psychology, sociology and economics).

All the presentations represent contributors to a new book (be published by Edward Elgar in 2007) titled: Career Choice in Management and Entrepreneurship: A Research Companion edited by Mustafa F. Ozbilgin and Ayala Malach-Pines who are the symposium chairs.

'Career Choices of Skilled Migrants: A Holistic Perspective'

Jawad Syed, Department of Business,Macquarie University, Sydney Australia

Ho (2006) argued that the conventional policy reliance on human capital based research tends to simplify much more complex cultural-environmental challenges faced by skilled migrants in the host economies. However, the proponents of human capital theory insist that skilled migration may be considered as capital mobility (Boeri, 2006), and that employment in the migrant economies is a transitional phenomenon because employment markets generally function as an integrative institution, seeking best qualified and most economical workers regardless of ethnic backgrounds (Nee, Sanders, & Sernau, 1994). This presentation probes these lines of inquiry and endeavours to offer a holistic perspective of career choices of skilled migrants. The presentation argues that as a people living within a socio-cultural and historical context, skilled migrants constitute much more than a factor of production flowing across international borders. Accordingly, there is a need to expand the research lens to incorporate economic as well as sociological and psychological aspects of migration.

'Career Constraint in the Creative and Cultural Industries in London: The Case of Work Placement Experience'

Mustafa Özbilgin and Ahu Tatli,Queen Mary,University of London, United Kingdom

Work placement may provide a significant path to employment and entrepreneurial careers in creative and cultural industries. Drawing on a field study of higher education institutions (HEIs), host organizations and placement students in the London based creative and cultural industry, we demonstrate that work placement also present constraints particularly to those students who do not fit the subjective requirements set by the host organizations. The process of work placement from the outset of allocation of work placement opportunities to management and evaluation of the placement is open to subjective bias. This subjectivity may limit the choices of students from non-traditional backgrounds and may reduce the effectiveness of work placement in terms of enhancing personal and career development of students. Furthermore, the current arrangements of work placement fail to adequately cater for the students' needs to embark on careers in entrepreneurship, employment and management in the sector, starving them of essential experiences which could prepare them for successful future careers in the creative and cultural industries.

'The Significance of Relationships in the Choice of a Management Career: A Focus on Turkey'

Zahide Karakitapoðlu Aygün and Zeynep Girgin, Bilkent University, Ankara

Relationships are central to human functioning. They serve as channels for social resources such as informational, emotional and instrumental support. The present study aims to explore the importance and functions of different relationships (mother, father, relatives, work colleagues, mentors etc.) in the career choice of aspiring managers (MBA students) in Turkey. Understanding those relational influences is especially important in Turkey, since it is characterized by close network ties. Another aim of the study was to examine the links between individualistic and collectivistic value orientations. One hundred and sixteen MBA students participated in the study (69 men, 47 women, mean age = 23.46). The results showed that fathers were rated as having the greatest influence, followed by lectures and mothers. Individualism was positively associated with being influenced by one's junior and senior work colleagues and managers at the workplace. Furthermore, supporting the patriarchal nature of the Turkish society, collectivism was closely associated with the involvement of fathers in the career decision-making process. These findings as well as the results of in-depth semi-structured interviews conducted with twelve MBA students (4 men, 8 women) will be discussed with reference to their theoretical and practical implications for career decision-making making in general and the choice of a management career in particular.

'Determinants of Career Choice - The Case of Israeli Hi-tech Entrepreneurs'

Dov Dvir, Ayala Malach-Pines and Arik Sadeh, School of Management and Management of Technology Department, Ben-Gurion University and Holon Institute of Technology, Israel

Israel has an unusually high number of high technology entrepreneurs and companies and is among the world leaders in hi-technology start-ups. The success of Israeli high technology entrepreneurs raised curiosity worldwide, but very little academic research attention. The presentation examines two empirical studies conducted in recent years that reveal interesting information about the determinants of the career choice of Israeli high technology entrepreneurs. The studies portray the successful high technology entrepreneur as a man who is first born and comes from a small family. He is highly educated and has an advanced academic degree in a technical field, a technical profession, and works in a managerial capacity in his entrepreneurial project. He served in the army in either a technical or a combat unit, was an officer and commanded people. In-depth interviews with these entrepreneurs reveal the powerful influence of the army service on their career development. In addition to the personal characteristics and educational and vocational background, the Israeli culture was also found to have a considerable influence on the career choice of entrepreneurs.


Keywords: Entrepreneurs Managers Cross-Culture Interdisciplinary
Stream: Economics and Management
Presentation Type: Colloquium in English
Paper: A paper has not yet been submitted.


Prof. Ayala M. Pines

Head, Department of Business Administration, School of Management, Ben-Gurion University
Beer-Sheva, Israel

Professor Ayala Malach-Pines, PhD is a clinical, social and organizational psychologist and Head of the Department of Business Administration at the Ben-Gurion University School of Management in Israel. Professor Pines is one of the pioneers in the study of burnout and has published extensively on the subject including numerous research articles, book chapters and a book entitled “Career Burnout: Causes and Cures” coauthored with Elliot Aronson. She published ten books, twenty book chapters and well over eighty research articles. Among her books: “Experiencing Social Psychology” coauthored with Christina Maslach," Couple Burnout: Causes and Cures," “Working Women: Problems and Solutions” and "The Psychology of gender" (the last two were published in Hebrew). "Romantic Jealousy” and “Falling in Love." Her books were translated into many languages including Hebrew, French, German, Spanish, Hungarian, Greek, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese and Korean.

Jawad Syed

Department of Business
Division of Economic and Financial Studies, Macquarie University

Australia


Prof. Mustafa Ozbilgin

Queen Mary, University of London
UK


Asst. Prof Zahide Karakitapoglu Aygun

Faculty of Business Administration, Bilkent University
Turkey


Prof. Dov Dvir

Head, Department of Management, Ben-Gurion University
Israel


Dr. Arik Sadeh

Management of Technology Department, Holon Academic Institute of Technology
Israel


Ahu Tatli

Research Fellow, Centre for Research in Equality and Diversity
School of Business and Management, Queen Mary, University of London

UK


Ref: I07P0152